Welcome to MOTIFS, where I follow cultural and literary images found in the Bible in an attempt to unearth God's meaning in His pattern of usage.


The issue of different claims to territorial waters was raised by Arvid Pardo of Malta at the UN in 1967 and the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea met in New York in 1973. In trying to narrow down the possibility of nation-state groups dominating the negotiations, the conference used a consensus process rather than a majority vote. With more than 160 nations participating, the conference lasted until 1982. The resulting Convention entered into force on 16 November 1994, one year after the 60th Guyanese State ratified the treaty. In 2017, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) voted to convene an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) to consider the creation of an International Legally Binding Instrument (ILBI) for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity Outside National Jurisdiction (BBNJ). The Intergovernmental Conference will meet for a series of four meetings between 2018 and 2020 to reach an agreement. [25] At the beginning of the twentieth century, some nations expressed a desire to expand their national ambitions: to include mineral resources, protect fish stocks, and provide the means to enforce pollution controls. (The League of Nations convened a conference in The Hague in 1930, but no agreement was reached. [6]) By applying the principle of peoples` use of a nation`s right to protect its natural resources, President Harry S. Truman extended U.S. control to all natural resources on its continental shelf in 1945. Other nations soon followed.

Between 1946 and 1950, Chile, Peru and Ecuador extended their rights to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) to cover their fishing grounds in the Humboldtstrom Torrent. Other nations have extended their coastal seas to 12 nautical miles (22 km). [7] In six informal consultations held in 1990 and 1991, participants concluded consideration of all outstanding issues concerning the provisions of the United Nations Convention on Deep-Sea Mining. It can rightly be said that there has been some degree of general agreement on these issues. The United States rejected the provisions of Part XI of the Convention for several reasons, arguing that the treaty was unfavourable to U.S. economic and security interests. Under Part XI, the United States refused to ratify the Convention, although it accepted the other provisions of the Convention. On 16 November 1993, the Convention received its sixtieth instrument of ratification or accession, which means that it will enter into force on 16 November 1994, in accordance with its conditions (Article 308). The General Assembly itself called upon all States to participate in the consultations and to redouble their efforts to achieve universal participation in the Convention as soon as possible.

3/ The imminent entry into force of the Convention gave the informal consultations a sense of urgency. A revised text (SG/LOS/CRP.1/Rev.1) of 3 June 1994 was presented to delegations to close the session. This document has given rise to a number of summary comments contained in the text of the draft resolution and the draft agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982, which are contained in annex I to the present report. A solution to the question of representation in the Council is contained in the informal agreement in Annex II. During the first part of this phase, consultations identified nine areas of difficulty: costs for States Parties; the company; decision-making; the Review Conference; technology transfer; limitation of production; compensation fund; the financial terms of the contract; and environmental aspects. After considering the different approaches that could be followed in the study of these issues, there was a general consensus on an approach that allowed participants to study all outstanding issues with a view to resolving them and to decide how to deal with issues that might not be resolved. . . .

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